Lit review January #2
Disclaimer: this compilation of synopses have been collected from multiple sources, including Mark Crislip's Puscast, Journal Watch Infectious Diseases, Medscape Infectious Diseases, CDC MMWR, AMA Morning Rounds, ProMED Mail, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Clinical Infectious Diseases, and more. I chose these articles based on their relevance to clinical microbiology and would be of interest to my fellows, and some other pieces that I found amusing to read. All credit goes to these original contributors. I'm just a messenger :).
QuickStats: Percentage* of Emergency Department Visits for Acute Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection† That Had an Antimicrobial Ordered or Prescribed,§ by Metropolitan Statistical Area¶ — United States, 2008–2015**
This needs no explanation. Sigh.
Antibody detection by agglutination–PCR (ADAP) enables early diagnosis of HIV infection by oral fluid analysis
Anti-HIV antibodies are found at far lower concentrations in OF compared with blood, leading to poor sensitivity and a longer period of time from infection to detection threshold
HIV oral-fluid test based on Antibody detection by agglutination-PCR (ADAP) using DNA conjugates of the HIV proteins p24, gp41, and gp120
Analytical sensitivity 1,000- to 10,000-fold higher than EIAs
100% sensitivity and specificity in 22 patients and 22 controls
Able to resolve EIA and WB indeterminate
Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection: Differences in Prevalence Between Sexes and Concordance With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection
About 10,000 adults 18-69 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to 2014
Oral HPV: 11.5% of men and 3.2% women
Translates to 11 million men and 3.2 million women nationally
Oral HPV 16: 1.7 million men and 270,000 women in the United States
Underdiagnosis of influenza virus infection in hospitalized older adults
A study in Tennessee: adults 65 years and older hospitalized with fever or respiratory symptoms during influenza season are less likely to have a provider-ordered influenza test than younger adults. Some, but not all, of this disparity is due to a lower likelihood of ILI presentation.
Accuracy of the Urinalysis for Urinary Tract Infections in Febrile Infants 60 Days and Younger
Looked at febrile infants ≤60 days old
UTI criteria: ≥50 000 or ≥10 000 colony-forming units (CFUs) per mL of a uropathogen
For ≥50 000 CFU/mL: positive UA
Sensitivity was 0.94 regardless of bacteremia; 1.00 with bacteremia; and 0.94 without bacteremia
Specificity was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90–0.91) in all groups
Sens and spec a little lower when threshold lowered to ≥10,000
Association Between Sporadic Legionellosis and River Systems in Connecticut
Background: typically associated with aquatic systems in buildings or water tanks/towers
This study in CT found that proximity to several rivers and residence in the corresponding watersheds were associated with increased incidence of the disease
Elevated rainfall and stream flow rate were associated with increases in incidence 2 weeks later
Natural water is also reservoir for disease! Another bug to worry about for those who enjoy “raw water”!
Reduced Chlorhexidine and Daptomycin Susceptibility in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium after Serial Chlorhexidine Exposure
VREfm are likely frequently exposed to CHX (commonly used antiseptics); however, the long-term effects of CHX exposure have not been studied in enterococci
VREfm exposed to CHX for 21 days
Reduced CHX susceptibility emerged (4-fold shift in CHX MIC)
There were also subpopulations with reduced daptomycin (DAP) susceptibility with significant alterations in membrane phospholipids associated with reduced DAP susceptibility
Tradeoff Between Cell Viability and Lysis in Antibiotic-Mediated Biofilms
Generally, biofilms play an important role in bacteria colonization in endocarditis, osteomyelitis, joint infections, etc.
Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic may enhance biofilm formation
Sub-MIC levels of wall agents (FOS, AMP, OXA, CRO) increased biofilm formation in vitro for Enterococcus faecalis
Protein, nucleic acid, folate targets: no effect
Texas Ellis County reports 6 cases of measles
6 measles cases in Ellis County, Texas
Also recently found customer sick with measles attended a movie
People who went to the theater on that day should continue to monitor themselves for measles symptoms through [Tue 30 Jan 2018]
Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Clones Carrying a Novel Integron-Borne blaIMP-1 in a Tertiary Hospital
First report of IMP-1 (metallo BL) in P. mirabilis worldwide: IPM>64, MEM>64, ETP 32-64
Gene in a pretty mobile plasmid
In Vitro Activity of the Siderophore Cephalosporin, Cefiderocol, against Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible and Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Gram-Negative Bacilli Collected Worldwide in 2014 to 2016
Cefiderocol is a parenteral siderophore cephalosporin under investigation
Unique mechanism of bacterial cell entry with addition of catechol moiety (siderophore) at the three-position side chain of cefiderocol to allow chelation with ferric iron, and facilitates its transport across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacilli using bacterial iron transport systems
The cephalosporin moiety of cefiderocol binds primarily to PBP3
In vitro activity against carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae, MDR A. baumannii, MDR P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia, and B. cepacia.
The Utility of Multiplex Molecular Tests for Enteric Pathogens: a Micro-Comic Strip
The Brief Case: Staphylococcus intermedius Group—Look What the Dog Dragged In
46-year-old man with a history of DM type I)HTN, CHF, CAD presented to his primary care physician with a 3-week history of ulceration on his left, great toe
Abundant white beta-hemolytic colonies resembling Staphylococcus spp.
Catalase, coagulase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) positive
MALDI: Staphylococcus intermedius
Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG): S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini, MALDI may have a problem ID species
SIG members are common colonizers of animal mucosal surfaces, especially those of dogs
That's all for now. Bug Hunters, may the odds be ever in your favor.