PEERA HEMARAJATA, M.D., PH.D., D(ABMM)

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Lit review Feb #2

February 7, 2018

Disclaimer: this compilation of synopses have been collected from multiple sources, including Mark Crislip's Puscast, Journal Watch Infectious Diseases, Medscape Infectious Diseases, CDC MMWR, AMA Morning Rounds, ProMED Mail, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Clinical Infectious Diseases, and more. I chose these articles based on their relevance to clinical microbiology and would be of interest to my fellows, and some other pieces that I found amusing to read. All credit goes to these original contributors. I'm just a messenger :).

FDA Approves Allergan's Avycaz for Two Types of Pneumonia

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/892204

  • New indication for CAZ/AVI - hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, in addition to the previously approved use for complicated intraabdominal and urinary tract infections.

FDA Approves Ozenoxacin Cream for Impetigo

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/890180

  • Topical non-fluorinated quinolone for treatment of impetigo caused by S. aureus (including MRSA) and S. pyogenes

Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Tonsil Tissue in Healthy Adults and Colocalization in Biofilm of Tonsillar Crypts

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaotolaryngology/fullarticle/2668609

  • A study in 102 tonsils from adults, HPV present in 4.9%. Of all positives, HPV 16 or 18 in 3.9%

  • Demonstrated colocalization of HPV in biofilms in tonsillar crypts

  • General knowledge that seroprevalence in adults is high. This study showed that actual carriage may be much lower due to clearance

    • Biofilms may protect HPV from being cleared

  • Super small sample size, and we don’t know seroprevalence of this cohort

Bacteria Identified as Oncogenic Drivers in Hereditary Cancer

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/892280

  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) causes benign polyps along the colon, which could develop into cancer

  • A study looking at tissue biopsy from FAP cases vs controls

  • In FAP cases, there were more biofilms containing Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis, with local invasion into mucosa

  • More expression of “oncotoxins” by these bacteria in FAP compared to controls

  • Also demonstrated increased tumor formation in mice

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